Use of Anthracophyllum discolor and Stereum hirsutum as a Suitable Strategy for Delignification and Phenolic Removal of Olive Mill Solid Waste

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Benavides, Viviana
Pinto Ibieta, Fernanda
Serrano, Antonio
Rubilar, Olga
Ciudad, Gustavo
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FOODS,Vol.11,,2022
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Abstract
This study evaluated the use of the white-rot fungi (WRF) Anthracophyllum discolor and Stereum hirsutum as a biological pretreatment for olive mill solid mill waste (OMSW). The WRF strains proposed were added directly to OMSW. The assays consisted of determining the need to add supplementary nutrients, an exogenous carbon source or use agitation systems, and evaluating WRF growth, enzyme activity, phenolic compound removal and lignin degradation. The highest ligninolytic enzyme activity was found at day 10, reaching 176.7 U/L of manganese-independent peroxidase (MniP) produced by A. discolor, and the highest phenolic removal (more than 80% with both strains) was reached after 24 days of incubation. The confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis (CLSM) confirmed lignin degradation through the drop in lignin relative fluorescence units (RFU) from 3967 for untreated OMSW to 235 and 221 RFU, showing a lignin relative degradation of 94.1% and 94.4% after 24 days of treatment by A. discolor and S. hirsutum, respectively. The results demonstrate for the first time that A. discolor and S. hirsutum were able to degrade lignin and remove phenolic compounds from OMSW using this as the sole substrate without adding other nutrients or using agitation systems. This work indicates that it could be possible to design an in situ pretreatment of the valorization of OMSW, avoiding complex systems or transportation. In this sense, future research under non-sterile conditions is needed to evaluate the competition of WRF with other microorganisms present in the OMSW. The main drawbacks of this work are associated with both the low reaction time and the water addition. However, OMSW is seasonal waste produced in one season per year, being stored for a long time. In terms of water addition, the necessary optimization will be addressed in future research.
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