Molecular aspects of breast cancer resistance to drugs (Review)

Despite continuous advances in the knowledge of breast cancer pathophysiology, this type of neoplasia remains a leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. Carcinogenesis takes a progressive course from somatic mutations, alteration of the DNA repair mechanisms, inhibition of growth suppressors, followed by cell proliferation, tissue invasion and risk of metastasis. Less than 10% of all cancers are hereditary, and in the case of breast cancer only 8%, a phenomenon linked to genetic changes in BRCA1 or BRCA2. All the other cancers can be caused by an infection (15%) or in most cases (75%) the etiology is unknown. Patients with genetic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 have 30-60% likelihood of developing a second primary breast cancer and between 11 and 45% risk of ovarian cancer, HER-2/neu is overexpressed in similar to 30% of human breast tumors and it has a predictive role in chemotherapy and endocrine therapy.

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