Impact of nanoparticles and their ionic counterparts derived from heavy metals on the physiology of food crops

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Tighe Neira, Ricardo
Gonzalez Villagra, Jorge
Nunes Nesi, Adriano
Inostroza Blancheteau, Claudio
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PLANT PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY,Vol.172,14-23,2022
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Abstract
Heavy metals and their engineered nanoparticle (NP) counterparts are emerging contaminants in the environment that have captured the attention of researchers worldwide. Although copper, iron, zinc and manganese are essential micronutrients for food crops, higher concentrations provoke several physiological and biochemical alterations that in extreme cases can lead to plant death. The effects of heavy metals on plants have been studied but the influence of nanoparticles (NPs) derived from these heavy metals, and their comparative effect is less known. In this critical review, we have found similar impacts for copper and manganese ionic and NP counterparts; in contrast, iron and zinc NPs seem less toxic for food crops. Although these nutrients are metals that can be dissociated in water, few authors have conducted joint ionic state and NP assays to evaluate their comparative effect. More efforts are thus required to fully understand the impact of NPs and their ion counterparts at the physiological, metabolic and molecular dimensions in crop plants.
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