Biopolitics and Governance in the Wallmapu Territory (Araucania) From a Subject Level. Manuel Manquilef and the 'National Gymnastics' at the Beginning of the 20th Century

Mieres Chacaltana, Manuel - Llancavil-Llancavil, Daniel - Mansilla Sepúlveda, Juan
Datos de publicación:
Araucania - Mapuches - physical education - Chilean state - governance - biopolitics
This article examines the perspective developed by Manuel Manquilef at the beginning of the 20th century regarding the games, dances and domestic and martial exercises practised by the Mapuches. This school teacher, of Mapuche origin, valued the rescuing of these physical practices that represented an essential part of the soul of a people as something that was necessary to preserve. The theoretical framework is established embracing the notions of truth, subject, governance and biopolitics defined by Michel Foucault, articulated with an approach stemming from the Analysis of Social Networks (ASN). Consequently, the methodology encompasses a dense descriptive design with ego-centred reticular structures, based on tools provided by the ASN. On the basis of this theoretical-methodological network, there emerges a frontal analysis aimed at straining the relationship between discourse and subject, and more specifically the available margins of freedom in the intricate fabric of knowledge-power displayed in Chilean society at the beginning of the 20th century. Into this weave, Manquilef, native to the Wallmapu territory (Araucania) at that time and which was subsequently annexed to the Chilean state, became immersed. The conclusion reached is that Manquilef's ideas, whatever his intentions may have been, proved to be functional to the process of assimilation spurred by the Chilean governance in Araucania shortly after its effective occupation.

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