Assessing the ecological risk of active principles used currently by freshwater fish farms

Resumen:
The global aquaculture industry has grown exponentially in recent years using to control of infections and diseases, a variety of veterinary drugs (VMP) are used, including antibiotics, antifungals and antiparasitics, which have different routes of emission, environmental persistence and side effects to aquatic organisms, becoming one of the main concerns in its use of veterinary drugs (VMP) and its potential toxicological impact on the environment, in this context, Chile is considered one of the main salmon producers. Ecological risk assessment of active principles used infreshwater fish farms worldwide and in Chile were investigated. We recollect a physical - chemical properties of active principles used by fish farms and we could estimate the relative hazard a priori. Later active principles grouped as antibiotics (n= 6), antiparasitics (n= 5), anesthetics (n= 3), and disinfectants (n = 7) were assessed using a mass balance model based on fugacity was developed for each active principle under treatments via immersion and food administration in fish, while a volumetricmodel for disinfectants and sodium chloride was used for estimating the predicted environmental concentration (PEC), under a real smolt farming scenario in fish farms. Ecotoxicological data were collected from open literature to predict the no-effect concentration (PNEC). The ecological risk assessment was characterized using a risk quotient (RQ = PEC/PNEC) based in two assessment tiers. Results revealed that 12 active ingredients showed a high risk (RQ = 1), thus indicating that adverse effects could occur and further investigation with measured concentrations in the field are required to reduce exposure in surface waters. (c) 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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