Influence of saprophytic fungi and inorganic additives on enzyme activities and chemical properties of the biodegradation process of wheat straw for the production of organo-mineral amendments

Resumen:
Cellulose and lignin as main components of crop residues have a significant influence on composting operations and composition of the final products. Both are strongly associated, and lignin can be considered an important barrier during the biodegradation process of lignocellulosic materials. Saprophytic fungi are efficient lignin degraders due to their complex enzymatic system. Therefore, the influence of the inoculation of saprophytic fungi (Coriolopsis rigida, Pleurotus ostreams, Trichoderma harzianum and Trametes versicolor) and the supply of inorganic additives (Al2O3, Fe2O3 and allophanic soil) that promote the stabilization of carbon (C), were analyzed in the biodegradation of wheat straw (WS). The activity of Laccase (LAC), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and beta-glucosidase and changes in temperature, pH and E-4/E-6 ratio were analyzed in a biodegradation process of 126 days. The activity of LAC, MnP and the E-4/E-6 ratio were significantly influenced and increased (enzymes) by fungi species, inorganic additives, and time of inorganic material addition, as well as their interactions (p < 0.05). The WS inoculated with T. versicolor showed the highest average activities for LAC, MnP and beta-glucosidase (2000, 220 UL-1 and 400 mu mol pNP g(-1) h(-1) respectively). Furthermore, the addition of Al2O3 and Fe2O3 increased all the activities regarded to the decomposition of WS and influenced the changes associated with the stabilization of OM in composted WS. In conclusion, the inoculation of WS with T. versicolor in combination with metal oxides improved the enzyme related to the biodegradation process of WS favorizing its stabilization in the medium time, which is of importance in the composting of residues with high C/N ratio.

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