Carbonate-beta-Cyclodextrin-Based Nanosponge as a Nanoencapsulation System for Piperine: Physicochemical Characterization

Piperine (PIP) is a nitrogenous substance whose application in food is still limited due to its low solubility in water, low bioavailability, and high pungency. Nanosponges (NS) can selectively capture, transport, and release a wide variety of substances and mask unpleasant flavors. The objective of this study was to evaluate carbonate-beta-cyclodextrin-based NS formation as a nanoencapsulation system for PIP. The NS were formed with a cyclic oligosaccharide (beta-cyclodextrin) to a cross-linker (diphenyl carbonate) at molar ratios of 1:2, 1:6, and 1:10 by the solvent method at 90, 120, and 150 degrees C for 5 h. Only molar ratios of 1:6 and 1:10 formed NS. The NS 1:6 at 90 degrees C with loading efficiency of 42.6% +/- 1.1 was the best alternative for loading PIP in the NS matrix because it had the lowest absorbance of cyclic carbonates and required the lowest amount of cross-linker in its formation. The ability of the cyclodextrin-based NS to encapsulate PIP was confirmed by FTIR studies and hyperspectral FTIR images, TGA, and DSC, showing that PIP is dispersed, not forming large clusters, or concentrating in a single zone. NS are an effective PIP encapsulation system and protect the bioactive properties of the PIP.

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