PRACTICES OF INDIGENOUS DISCIPLINE IN THE SCHOOLS OF THE ARAUCANIA, 1883 - 1910
- The present article inquires about the presence of the school in the Araucania region since 1883, milestone of the definitive military occupation of the territory by the Chilean State, until 1910, the year of the first centenary of the Republic of Chile. Its objective is to analyze the role of the school and its reproductive role of a hegemonic culture over the Mapuche population, through the homogenizing action of school institutions. The characteristics acquired by the school in the Araucania are addressed, making reference to the different mechanisms used by the State of Chile, through its local and national authorities, to guarantee the functioning of this and the discipline of the Mapuches. Students study elements of the school such as infrastructure, furniture, teaching materials, subjects taught, financing, grants, actions of preceptors and visitors, which reflect the dynamics that were established, in the field of education, between the Chilean State and the Mapuche population. . The study is oriented from a qualitative methodology with a historiographic design with dense descriptive scopes. Primary sources present in the Regional Archive of the Araucania and recent secondary sources have been used. The results show that during the installation of the school in Araucania a process of discipline and homogenization was carried out with the Mapuche children who attended it, whose actions were key to sanction and legitimize a system of social habits and practices of the ruling class.