Manifestaciones afectivas en jóvenes con discapacidad intelectual

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URI:
http://repositoriodigital.uct.cl/handle/10925/2068
Fecha de publicación:
2019-11-08
Datos de publicación:
Interdisciplinaria, Vol. 35, N° 1, 69-86, 2018
Temas:
Discapacidad intelectual - Afectividad
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Resumen:
La afectividad en personas con discapacidad intelectual es un tema que ha sido omitido y ha generado prejuicios desde la ética cultural. La investigación que se informa consistió en develar las manifestaciones afectivas en jóvenes con discapacidad intelectual, con un rango de edad de 15 a 25 años. El nivel de conocimiento que alcanza la investigación, se enmarca en un estudio de tipo descriptivo denso. La recolección de datos se realizó en una escuela especial de la Araucanía (Chile), aplicando entrevistas semiestructuradas con diseño estudio de caso. Se develó que las manifestaciones deafectividad de los jóvenes se sustentan en el cuidado y respeto mutuo, evidenciando creencias marcadas por la presencia de machismo, conciencia de responsabilidades y posicionamientos valóricos de adultos significativos que limitan, regulan comportamientos y omiten la educación sexual por la condición de los jóvenes, evidenciándose esta última de forma transversal al currículo de escuela especial.
 
This research studies the affectivity in people with intellectual disability condition, in order to visualize the process of self-construction of the sense of being person. This research looks for revealing the affective manifestations in young people with intellectual disability, whose ages are between 15 and 25 years old. This problem implies a complex issue, which involves cultural, religious, educative and idiosyncratic factors that reflect an unfair society which does not protect the rights of social groups in disadvantage situations and difficult educability conditions. Theoretically is assumed an axiological positioning which conceives the person as a value in itself and a spiritual microcosm which is alive and transcendent. The method applied is guided from the qualitative approach with a descriptive reach through the design associated to the case study and in accordance with the hermeneutic paradigm. The context of the problem was focus on a special school in the Araucanía region at the South of Chile. Semistructure interviews and appropriate rigor criteria such as confirm ability, transferability, credibility and dependency were applied. The participants were 13 students and four teachers. The research is adjusted to the ethical requirements in the Helsinki and Singapore Declaration, according to the appropriate behavior of the researcher and the informed consent. The qualitative data were reduced through the transcription and coding process using the Atlas.ti software version 7.0. With the primary transcribed documents axial and open coding were applied, which let to develop analysis from the constant comparative method. An empirical- theoretical sample and content analysis were done. The results let the categories raise, operationalized in codes, highlighting between them, affective manifestations, couple relationship, personal care, young people beliefs and teachers’ beliefs. It was revealed that the affective manifestations of young people are based in the mutual respect and care, demonstrating beliefs with sexist characteristics, conscience of responsibilities and the meaningful adults’ positions related to values, which limit and regulate behaviors and omit the sexual education because the condition that the young people have, evincing the sexual education in a transversal way to the curriculum of the special school. The sexual education must give precise information and not be restricted to the intellectual agreement, but respecting the appropriate ages of the people life cycle, where the education must be precise and direct. To accomplish this task, it was discovered that didactic resources must be given to help young people to be aware of their action. Additionally, it was revealed that young people must be constantly accompanied by guides, mediation regarding to the construction of bonds and affective experience suitable to their own characteristics. Family is presented as an obstructive element in the young people affective relationships, evincing a lack of communication and comprehension. Teachers consider the young people as valuable people, where their intellectual conditions do not affect their rights to manifest themselves affectively either their friends or partners. In summary, it must advance toward an education that overcomes the existence of false beliefs, and that will exist in the sexual education the disposition to talk with respect about what the young people say their interests, worries, responsibilities and respect with themselves and with others. For this reason, it is necessary to guide and orient young people, not only from the formal educational institution, but also from the collaborative work with the family, where this formation should not be delegated only to the professionals, but also that it constitutes in a contextualized learning of sexual education and that it must be accepted as an inherent condition from the human being, so that, in this way it must be experienced the liberty of the rights and the ethical personalism of each human being.
 

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