Modeling and source apportionment of diesel particulate matter
- The fine and ultra fine sizes of diesel particulate matter (DPM) are of greatest health concern. The composition of these primary and secondary fine and ultra fine particles is principally elemental carbon (EC) with adsorbed organic compounds, sulfate, nitrate, ammonia, metals, and other trace elements. The purpose of this study was to use an advanced air quality modeling technique to predict and analyze the emissions and the primary and secondary aerosols concentrations that come from diesel-fueled sources (DFS). The National Emissions Inventory for 1999 and a severe southeast ozone episode that occurred between August and September 1999 were used as reference. Five urban areas and one rural area in the Southeastern US were selected to compare the main results. For urban emissions, results showed that DFS contributed (77.9% +/- 8.0) of EC, (16.8% +/- 8.2) of organic aerosols, (14.3% +/- 6.2) of nitrate, and (8.3% +/- 6.6) of sulfate during the selected episodes. For the rural site, these contributions were lower. The highest DFS contribution on EC emissions was allocated in Memphis, due mainly to diesel non-road sources (60.9%). For ambient concentrations, DFS contributed (69.5% +/- 6.5) of EC and (10.8% +/- 2.4) of primary anthropogenic organic aerosols, where the highest DFS contributions on EC were allocated in Nashville and Memphis on that episode. The DFS contributed (8.3% +/- 1.2) of the total ambient PM2.5 at the analyzed sites. The maximum primary DPM concentration occurred in Atlanta (1.44 mu g/m(3)), which was 3.8 times higher than that from the rural site. Non-linearity issues were encountered and recommendations were made for further research. The results indicated significant geographic variability in the EC contribution from DFS, and the main DPM sources in the Southeastern U.S. were the non-road DFS. The results of this work will be helpful in addressing policy issues targeted at designing control strategies on DFS in the Southeastern U.S. Published by Elsevier Ltd.